Nemrut-Nemrut Dağı Nemrud: Tanrıların Tahtı

2,206 metre yüksekliğinde, bölgeye tamamen hakim bir konumda olan Nemrud Toros sıradağları arasında bir dağdır. Hangi yönden bakılırsa bakılsın dağın zirvesini görmek mümkündür. Dağ, sadece yaz aylarında ulaşıma açıktır ve yılın geri kalan süresi boyunca kar ve buzla kaplıdır.

Kommagene'nin son rahibinin, Kral 4. Antiochos'un Romalılara yenilmesinden sonra, tahminen İ.S. 72 yılında, Nemrud Tapınağı'nı terk ettiği sanılmaktadır. Takip eden iki bin yıl boyunca burada yatmakta olan kralları sadece rüzgarların uğultusu rahatsız edecektir.

Sonradan bölgeye yerleşen Hırıstiyan ahali tapınağın başlangıcı hakkında tamamen bilgisizdiler ve onun Eski Ahit'te adı geçen efsanevi Nimrod'un eseri olduğuna inanıyorlardı. Bu nedenle ona dünyanın ilk büyük hükümdarı olan Nemrud adını verdiler.

Nemrud Dağı 19. yüzyılda Alman bilgin Karl Sester tarafından keşfedildi. Sester'in bu muhteşem tapınak karşısında duyduğu şaşkınlık tapınağın o güne dek çizilen hiç bir Küçük Asya haritasında gösterilmemiş olmasından duyduğu şaşkınlıktan tahminen daha az olmuştur.

Keşfi takiben Türk arkeolog Osman Hamdi Bey dağdaki ilk kazıyı başlattı. Çalışmalar zaman içersinde Türk, Alman ve Amerikalı arkeologlar tarafından sürdürülerek bugüne getirildi. Bu çalışmalar arasında Profesör Derner ve Profesör Goell ve Profesör Şahin'inkiler en kayda değer olanlarıdır.

Kurucusu Antiochos tapınağın sadece kendi hierothesion'u (tapınaksal anıtmezar) değil yeni bir dinin de merkezi olmasını istemişti. Bu yeni dinin Pers Part dünyasını Grek Roma dünyasıyla barış içinde kaynaştırması amaçlanıyordu ve Nemrud Dağı'nın zirvesinden tüm dünyaya yayılacağına inanılıyordu.

Dağda üç teras vardır: Doğu, Batı ve Kuzey. Bu terasların yeterince geniş olabilmesi için Kommagene inşaatçıları dağın tepesini neredeyse tamamen kesmişlerdi. O kadar ki sadece Doğu Terası için 1,500 metre küp masif kaya traşlanmıştı. Batı Teras'ında, zirvenin solunda, yer alan 10 metre yüksekliğindeki yontulmuş kaya yapılan işin büyüklüğü hakkında bize bilgi vermektedir.

Nemrud Dağı'nın tepesindeki tumulus 50 metre yüksekliğinde ve 150 metre çapında olmaktadır. Antik tören yolu tümülüsün çevresini dolanmaktadır.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Mt Nemrut; At the junction of the East and West civilisations, Nemrut Dagi (Mount Nemrut) is one of the most astounding sites in Turkey: A collection of colossal statues on a remote mountain 2150m high, adorning the temple and tomb of King Antiochus. 


Nemrut Dağı has since been a significant attraction, with thousands sunrise and sunset visitors to see the stones in the best possible light. It has been designated a World Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO, and is one of the most important National Parks in the country. In addition to the statues, the entire site includes art from the Commagene civilisation, the Eskikale (Old Castle), Yenikale (New Castle), Karakus Hill and Cendere Bridge. Most people use the nearby towns of Malatya, Kahta or Adiyaman as a base, and the road to the summit is only open from mid-April to mid-October because of heavy snow the rest of the year. 

The region that lies between the Taurus Mountains and the Euphrates was called Commagene during the Greek and Roman periods. Commagene was established originally as an independent kingdom in 162 BC by Mithridates Kalinikos. I. Mithridates brought together Persians and Macedonians and other communities in the area to form this powerful state and named it Commagene, which means"community of genes" in Greek. The kingdom was at the height of its splendor during the period of King Antiochos I (69-36 B.C.), who succeeded Mithridates. Most of the archeological remains which survive to our times, including the tumulus at the peak of Nemrut Dag, which still refuses to reveal all its secrets, are from the time of Antiochos I. 

At the cone shape summit of this 2,200m elevated mountain one can find statues mythical figures of Apollon, Zeus, Hercules and others. These gigantic heads fallen from the tomb of the obscure Commagene king Antiochus, stare at you silenty for more than 2000 years and were first found in 1881 by Karl Sester, a German archeologist. They are carved around 63 B.C during the reign of Antiochus-I, the emperor of the Commagene King. Here you can wonder around the cone shape, a man made summit, whereAntiochus' tumulus was located which were hidden under the man made limestone dome.

In 1987, Nemrut mountain became a member of UNESCO World Heritage list. It is also a National park.

Anatolia is having treasures, and Nemrut Mountain is having the chest full of mystery, if you want to discover the enigma of Commagene Kingdom join our Nemrut Tour and get there with a very informative guide!

The mountain lies 40 km ( 25 mi) north of Kahta, near Adıyaman. In 62 BC, King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues (8–9 m/26–30 ft high) of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranian god Ahura Mazda), Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

The pattern of damage to the heads (notably to noses) suggests that they were deliberately damaged because of belief in iconoclasm. The statues have not been restored to their original positions. The site also preserves stone slabs with bas-relief figures that are thought to have formed a large frieze. These slabs display the ancestors of Antiochus, who included both Greek and Persians.

The same statues and ancestors found throughout the site can also be found on the tumulus at the site, which is 49 m ( 161 ft) tall and 152 m ( 499 ft) in diameter. The statues appear to have Greek-style facial features, but Persian clothing and hairstyling.

The western terrace contains a large slab with a lion, showing the arrangement of stars and the planets Jupiter, Mercury and Mars on 7 July 62 BC. This may be an indication of when construction began on this monument. The eastern portion is well preserved, being composed of several layers of rock, and a path following the base of the mountain is evidence of a walled passageway linking the eastern and western terraces. Possible uses for this site is thought to have included religious ceremonies, due to the astronomical and religious nature of the monument.

The arrangement of such statues is known by the term hierothesion. Similar arrangements have been found at Arsameia on Nymphaios at the hierothesion of the father of Antiochus, Mithridates I Callinicus.

When the Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Romans in 189 BCE at the Battle of Magnesia it began to fall apart and new kingdoms were established on its territory by local authorities. Commagene being one of the Seleucid successor states occupied a land in between the Taurus mountains and the Euphrates. The state of Commagene had a wide range of cultures which left its leader from 62 BC - 38 BC Antiochus I to carry on a peculiar dynastic religious program, in which it included not only Greek and Persian deities but Antiochus and his family as well. This religious program was very possibly an attempt of Antiochus to unify his multiethnic kingdom and secure his dynasty's authority.[1]

Antiochus supported the cult as a propagator of happiness and salvation.[2] Many of the monuments on Mount Nemrud are ruins of the imperial cult of Commagene. The most important area to the cult was the tomb of Antiochus I, in which was decorated with colossal statues made of limestone. Although the Imperial cult did not last long after Antiochus, several of his successors had their own tombs built on Mount Nemrud.[3] For around half of the year, Mount Nemrud lays covered in snow which in effect has increased its weathering which has in part caused the statues to fall in ruin.

The site was excavated in 1881 by Charles Sester, a German engineer assessing transport routes for the Ottomans. Subsequent excavations have failed to reveal the tomb of Antiochus. This is nevertheless still believed to be the site of his burial. The statues, all of them "beheaded", have not been restored to their original condition.